Грузинская музыка / Georgian Music

May 26th, 2015

Грузинская музыка – это своего рода музыкальный феномен, она отличается от любой другой муззыки своим качеством и сущностью. Грузины сравнивают её со Святой Троицей, как с духовным основанием: три голоса являются основными и независимыми, у них нет главного голоса, как в европейской музыке. Единство Святой Троицы воплощается в одновременном произнесении слов, чего также не наблюдается в западноевропейском полифоническом искусстве.Фольклорные песни являются неотделимой частью сокровищницы грузинской культуры, народные песни, как и церковная музыка, передавались от поколения к поколению непосредственно через живую певческую традицию. Пением в Грузии занимаются преимущественно мужчины: типичная грузинская песня – трёхголосная мужская “а капелла”. Полифоническое пение занимает важное место в социальной жизни Грузии, как на праздниках, так и в трудах.Существуют два типа песен: восточногрузинские и западногрузинские. Песни Восточной Грузии часто имеют два солирующих верхних голоса, и нижние голоса с гибкими протяжными тонами. Песни же Западной Грузии характеризуются отчётливым многоголосием, которое часто имеет комплексную мелодическую структуру, не опирающуюся на гармонический консонанс.В 1976 году американское космическое агентство NASA, начав глобальное исследование “Вояджер“, отправило в космос песню «Чакруло» в исполнении “Эрисиони“ как образец музыкальных способностей человечества.

Nino Chkheidze / Нино Чхеидзе / ნინო ჩხეიძე

April 27th, 2015

Нино Чхеидзе pодилась в 1981 году, 6 января в Тбилиси. Окончила музыкальную школу, одновременно занималась вокалом в Тбилисском дворце пионеров. Позже стала серьезно заниматься пением и училась исполнительскому искусству у лучших мастеров вокала. Замужем, имеет дочь – Мариам. Жизненное кредо – профессионализм, ответственность, честность. Считает, что по жизни нужно идти с улыбкой и сеять только добро! В репертуаре Нино много грузинских народных песен, которые она исполняет в современной аранжировке.

Брэндон Стоун / Brandon Stone / ბრენდონ სთოუნი

March 20th, 2015

Восходящая звезда музыкального олимпа, гениальный молодой певец, композитор, пианист, аранжировщик и продюсер Брэндон Стоун написал более 250 произведений разных жанров и направлений.
Brandon Stone родился в Грузии в 1980 году. Уже в раннем детстве он был влюблён в музыку. С пяти лет играл в вокально-инструментальном ансамбле «Саженцы», которы был известен не только в Грузии, но и во всём Советском Союзе. В 15 лет он уехал за границу. Сначала судьба привела его в Америку, затем он переехал жить в Германию, где он заработал себе имя талантливого певца, композитора и аранжировщика.
В Америке продюссерами Брэндона Стоуна являются Harry Hinde и Joel A.Katz , которые продюссируют таких известных вокалистов, как Mariah Karey, Whitney Houston, Tony Braxton и т.д.
Brandon Stone записал несколько композиций в одной из самых известных студий звукозаписи «East Iris studios», как один из немногих молодых музыкантов. Там он и получил свой сценический псевдоним «Brandon Stone».
В Германии Брэндон Стоун закончил Берлинскую консерваторию по классу фортепиано (джазовое отделение).
Brandon Stone стал известным в Германии, как певец и продюссер. 2002 год Германия встретила с песней Брэндона «Peace to the world» ( «Миру мир») , посвящённую жертвам терракта 11 сентября в Нью Йорке, которую он исполнил перед многомиллионной публикой на Бранденбургских Воротах в центре Берлина. Он выпустил 5 синглов; его рождественский хит «Magic Christmas» в 2003 году занял верхние строчки европейских хит-парадов, а в Испании долгое время находилась на первом месте, подвинув с пьедестала Robbie Williams.
Сейчас Брэндон Стоун продюссирует известную представительницу германского шоу-бизнесса Kader Loth .
В апреле 2005 года Brandon Stone выпустил свой первый русскоязычный альбом «Случайный взгляд», в создании которого принимали участие многие талантливые музыканты и поэты: Лариса Машкевич, Дмитрий Геллер, Евгений Харьков, Лора Григ и один из лучших гитаристов Европы Франк Яуэрник. На одну из песен этого альбома («Моя мадонна») текст и музыку которой написала Лариса Машкевич, был снят видеоклип знаменитым грузинским режиссёром Зазой Орашвили.
В июле 2005 года Брэндон Стоун громко заявил о себе в российском шоу-бизнесе, приняв участие в самом престижном и популярном конкурсе «Новая волна» в Юрмале. Он оказывал помощь организаторам конкурса в подготовке конкурсантов,как музыкальный продюссер, написал песню, с которой участница конкурса Тина Кароль заняла второе место и получила специальный приз от Аллы Пугачёвой. Сам Brandon лидировал после первого конкурсного дня и занял призовое место. После конкурса, в соавторстве с Евгением Харьковым, он написал две песни для дуэта с Тиной Кароль, которые сразу стали хитами на Украине, после чего Brandon получил приглашение принять участие в съёмках телепередачи «Песня года». Так же в Берлине, на студии продюссерского центра «Brandon Stone Production», планируется запись нового альбома Тины Кароль.
География концертных выступлений Brandon Stone очень обширна: Лос-Анжелес, Нью-Йорк, Монте-Карло, Барселона, Берлин, Брюссель, Париж, Рига , и уже ждут его выступлений Киев, Минск, Москва и другие столицы и города стран СНГ.
Яркий талант и завораживающий голос Брэндона ставят его в ряд с немногими исполнителями, которые сохраняют и обогащают лучшие традиции популярной музыки, привнося индивидуальность и содержательность своего творчества.

Georgian Polyphonia

March 1st, 2015

Georgia has a unique tradition of polyphonic choral singing. Georgian traditional polyphony (music consisting of two or more related melodic lines) is not the result of any effort to create arrangements for the concert stage. On the contrary, it is the result of a creative process believed to have sprouted naturally and autonomously from the Georgian people before the Middle Ages, well before polyphony was used anywhere else in Europe. It has continued to develop orally from generation to generation and represents something very different from the traditional music of its neighbours, which has remained primarily monophonic (music in which melodic interest is confined to one line). Traces of archaism, which defy the conventions of harmony, counterpoint, and voice leading, are still present in Georgian folk music, and at times make the music seem very modern. Songs are predominantly sung in three-part harmony, in which all parts are of equal importance. The sonic result thus places more importance on the harmony than the melodic line. The folk music of Georgia is as widely varied as the geographical areas from which it sprang, and ranges from the intricate melismatic singing style of the east to the fierce, dissonant, and complex counterpoint of the west. Due to urbanization and displaced populations, however, Georgia’s traditional music in the rural regions is being threatened. With the help of NGOs, UNESCO, and a vibrant traditional musical scene in the capital city of Tbilisi, efforts are being made to reinvigorate the rural musical practices.

The traditional songs of Georgia are rooted in a bygone lifestyle of the country’s rural people. Work songs, healing songs, dance songs, lullabies, travelling songs, wedding songs, Christmas and Easter songs, historical songs, etc. were all an intrinsic part of everyday living. Now, however, because of great technological and political/administrative changes that have occurred in Georgia and throughout the world, many of these songs have lost their original meaning. For instance, work songs, whose rhythmic qualities improved productivity, have fallen into disuse today. But the songs have not entirely disappeared. Liturgical songs are once again sung freely in churches, and a vast range of Georgian traditional music can be heard on the concert stage, and also at the lavish Georgian banquets called supra.

If one is describing Georgian culture, attention must surely be given to the traditional Georgian supra. At first glance it would be described as a banquet at which there is much food, wine, toasting, and singing. However, this does not describe the spiritual side of a supra.

Whenever space allows, the supra is always held at one long table, or a makeshift table of many joined together end to end, running from one room to another, if need be. The table is laden with wine jugs which are always kept full of excellent Georgian wine, and copious amounts of food of all kinds, so much so that the table surface almost disappears.

Each supra has a tamada (the closest English translation is “toastmaster”) and is chosen by the host of the supra before the supra begins. Fulfilling one’s role as a tamada is an art form in itself. A good tamada is a poet/wit/philosopher/social commentator/orator/singer who creatively improvises a beautiful atmosphere of community, camaraderie and love through his toasts which introduce periods of tranquility and reflection amidst the extroverted energy of table conversation. Through an adroit choice of songs which are sung after every toast, the message of each toast is given more resonance.

The order in which the toasts are given is important. Throughout most of Georgia, the first toast is always to peace, followed by a toast to parents, to brothers and sisters, to those who have passed away (especially to any friend or relative of any person present at the table), to life (especially to the lives of the children of those who have recently passed away), and then to love and friendship.

After all these toasts have been made in this order, the tamada is free to choose his own additional topics, maintaining the established creative flow, usually relating these toasts to the people present or to the occasion which prompted the supra. The topics, to name a few, might be to ancestors, to mothers, to beauty, to creativity, to absent friends who are far away, etc. After any of the evening’s toasts, a guest, with the permission of the tamada, can add some thoughts of his or her own with another toast on the same topic. Starting a new topic without the tamada’s permission would be a social blunder. One important rule of the supra is that there should be no negative remarks or toasts, and it is the responsibility of the tamada to ensure that this rule is observed. Another rule of the supra is that one must not be drinking one’s wine unless a toast has just been made, and so it is the tamada’s responsibility to space out the toasts accordingly, so that everyone has a chance to imbibe, but not so often that people might become too intoxicated. In the hands of a good tamada, a supra is a beautiful, moving experience.

Tsiko-tsiko (Georgian Folk Instruments)

February 23rd, 2015

Tsiko-tsiko came to Georgia from Europe in the 1830s. Tsiko-Tsiko mainly accompanies dances.

Tsiko-tsiko as well as Garmoni became popular among folk musicians. Tsiko-Tsiko mainly accompanies dances. Only women play on it.

Traditional vocal polyphony

January 11th, 2015

Georgian folk music is predominantly vocal and is widely known for its rich traditions of vocal polyphony. It is widely accepted in contemporary musicology that polyphony in Georgian music predates the introduction of Christianity in Georgia (beginning of the 4th century AD). All regional styles of Georgian music have traditions of vocal a cappella polyphony, although in the most southern regions (Meskheti and Lazeti) only historical sources provide the information about the presence of vocal polyphony before the 20th century.

Vocal polyphony based on ostinato formulas and rhythmic drone are widely distributed in all Georgian regional styles. Apart from these common techniques, there are also other, more complex forms of polyphony: pedal drone polyphony in Eastern Georgia, particularly in Kartli and Kakheti table songs (two highly embellished melodic lines develop rhythmically free on the background of pedal drone), and contrapuntal polyphony in Achara, Imereti, Samegrelo, and particularly in Guria (three and four part polyphony with highly individualized melodic lines in each part and the use of several polyphonic techniques). Western Georgian contrapuntal polyphony features the local variety of the yodel, known as krimanchuli.

Both east and west Georgian polyphony is based on wide use of sharp dissonant harmonies (seconds, fourths, sevenths, ninths). Because of the wide use of the specific chord consisting of the fourth and a second on top of the fourth (C-F-G), the founder of Georgian ethnomusicology, Dimitri Arakishvili called this chord the “Georgian Triad”. Georgian music is also known for colorful modulations and unusual key changes.

Georgian polyphonic singing was among the first on the list of Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity in 2001. Georgian polyphonic singing was relisted on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2008.

Iavnana

December 27th, 2014

Iavnana (Georgian: იავნანა) is a genre of Georgian folk song, traditionally intended as a lullaby, but historically sung also as healing songs for the sick children. Some of the Iavnana lyrics are, however, of didactical or heroic character.

The name of the genre comes from its refrain iavnana (or iavnaninao, nana naninao, etc.), which contains the vocable nana (ნანა), purportedly derived from the name of a pagan mother goddess. Some of its variants, e.g., iavnana vardo nana, combine the names of the two flowers violet (ia) and rose (vardi) which frequently feature in Georgian folklore and classical literature, and are commonly associated with feminine and masculine symbols, respectively.

Over sixty versions of “Iavnanas” have been recorded. Most of these lullabies are sung directly to the child, and are largely preserved in modern-day Georgia. Many of the Iavnana variants, however, were “healing songs” performed specifically in the presence of the sick child, but addressed to the “lords” (batonebi) or “angels” (angelozebi), the spirits who were popularly believed to have taken possession of the patient suffering from smallpox, measles, scarlet fever or other infectious diseases.

The Iavnana motifs have been exploited in their poetry by several Georgian poets such as Ilia Chavchavadze, Akaki Tsereteli, and Galaktion Tabidze.

Грузинский национальный балет [Sukhishvilebis Gundi]

November 4th, 2014

Suxishvili Ансамбль народного танца, аналогичный коллективу Игоря Моисеева или «Березке», создали в Грузии известные танцовщики Илико Сухишвили и Нино Рамишвили. В знаменитой тифлисской балетной студии Перини, которую они окончили, занимался и Сулико Вирсаладзе, будущий главный художник Кировского театра, наставник и соавтор Юрия Григоровича. В 1945 году, сразу по окончании войны, Сухишвили и Рамишвили начали возрождать грузинский танцевальный фольклор в старой нетопленой филармонии, а Вирсаладзе помогал им, лично расписывая костюмы из дешевой бязевой ткани. Уже в 1948 году ансамбль выпустили на гастроли в Европу. Концерты прошли с оглушительным успехом, и приглашения посыпались со всех сторон.

Cлава коллектива сейчас стала поистине мировой. «Восьмое чудо света» – именно так окрестила ансамбль “Сухишвили” международная пресса. «Грузинский национальный балет – это уникальный феномен, который хотя бы раз нужно увидеть собственными глазами», – пишет французская газета Le Figaro. «Во всем мире не найти лучшего ансамбля народного танца», – вторит французам The Washington Post. «Грузинские артисты балета – само совершенство. Это даже не танец, это – полет. Шторм прямо на сцене!», – таковы восторженные реплики журналиста австралийской Daily Mirror.

SuxishviliБалет «Сухишвили» стал первым ансамблем народного танца, который выступил на подмостках знаменитого миланского оперного театра «Ла Скала». После заключительного танца артистов трижды вызывали на бис. Занавес поднимался 14 раз и рекорд знаменитого тенора Энрике Карузо был побит – при нем занавес поднимался одиннадцать раз. Оглушительный успех встречал артистов во всем мире – во время гастролей на Бродвее выступление Грузинского национального балета было названо лучшим шоу года, а сам коллектив – лучшим балетом Бродвея. В коллекции “Сухишвили” – награда королевы Великобритании.

Теперь всемирно известным ансамблем, получившим статус «национального балета Грузии», руководит уже третье поколение династии Сухишвили—Рамишвили.

Salamuri (Georgian Folk Instruments)

October 23rd, 2014

Salamuri is widespread wind musical instrument in all regions of Georgia (especially in Kartli, Kakheti, Meskheti, Tusheti, Pshavi, and Imereti). Relics obtained from archaeological excavations prove the existence of Salamuri in Georgia from the ancient times. Among the relics found by an archaeological expedition in Mtskheta (Eastern part of Georgia), one thing very interesting for Georgian musical culture attracts out attention. This is a bone pipe, found in 1938 at the northern section of Samtavro’s sepulcher. This “Salamuri” is made of swan(shin) bone. It is unreeded and has only three small keys on the front side. The surface of the instrument is well polished. Its length is 19,9cm. The size of blowing part is 1,1cm and the bottom’s part is 1,8cm. It has been put with 14-15 year old dead boy into the grave. Many other things were also put there: earthenware, crockery, arms, clothes, a talisman and so on. It is worthy of note that there were sheep bones, bull’s head and feet bones there as well. On account of this the guide of the expedition the academician Iv. Djavakhishvili called it “The grave of a little shepherd”. The examination of sepulchre showed that it is dated back to XII-XI century B.C. and if we take into consideration the instrument’s well developed design, it should have been widely spread in Georgia a long time before the mentioned date. Bone-pipes (Salamuris) were also found in “Uphliscikhe” (monastery) among the things contributed to the God of Beauty.

At present this Salamuri is kept in “Simon Djnashia State Museum”. Researchers once have tried to make sound from it and have issued only four sounds. What they considered to be sufficient for their archaeological researches also have counted sufficient. It was understandable as no one expected anything greater. It is necessary to note, that the researchers did not pay adequate attention to these four sounds. This instrument has an absolutely perfected and correct tetra chord that outstrips by thousands of years Greek tetra chord formation. But this Salamuri keeps much more secrets in itself! It appeared, that it is possible to issue 10 sounds from it not by the over-blowing, but by inclining the instrument under different angles, and in this way we get seven different tetra chords that, as the final result, it represents sound system.

In Georgia, there are two kinds of Salamuri preserved till the present day: reeded and unreeded Salamuri. These two kinds of Salamuri differ in their timber, form, sound range and resonance. The unreeded Salamuri represents a pipe of approx. 380-400mm in length. It has 8 front keys and sometimes one key on the back side. The first front key is placed 13cm. apart from the head, but the other 6 front keys are separated by equal distance (3cm). It is often made from cane, apricot-tree, reed and elder. It becomes slightly narrower towards the end, to blow in comfortably. The unreeded Salamuri has a diatonic scale of one octave. By overblowing, its compass increases. The unreeded Salamuri is mainly used in parts of east Georgia (Kakheti, Kartli, Meskheti, Tusheti and Pshavi). But the reeded Salamuri represents a wooden pipe of 23-36cm. in length with a cut-off head. As usual, it has 8 front keys and one back key (between front first and second keys). The reed of Salamuri is a small tap (1,2-1,5cm) inside the pipe. Reeded Salamuri is more often made out of walnut and apricot trees. Despite the fact that the reeded Salamuri is smaller than the unreeded one, its technical abilities are considerably higher (richer sounding and larger sound range). It is more difficult to design the reeded Salamuri and requires master’s experienced hand. The salamuri has a diatonic scale of one octave. By overblowing, its compass increases. The wood material for Salamuri should be proportionally grown up, straight, carefully cut down and drilled from the beginning to the end. The hollow and surface should be well polished. Then they would cut the pipe’s head and attach the instrument’s reed to this place. On the surface, the area of reed is a bit cut off. Only from this air way the air should be emitted, that is why the blowing part (neck) is entirely closed. Then they cut 8 oval front keys along the instrument’s reed. They should be separated from each other by equal distance (2cm). The 9th key is cut out on the opposite side of the pipe (between first and the second keys). Thus, Salamuri is divided into three parts: the head or neck part, body or the key part and the ending. Each of them has its own size and a certain interrelation. The closer the first key is to the reed of the instrument the more high-pitched sound is produced. Men usually play Salamuri. Reeded Salamuri is widely spread all over Georgia. Salamuri started its existence in pastoral atmosphere. Consequently, Salamuri’s repertoire mainly consists of shepherd melodies. It was often accompanied combined with “Doli” (drum). The reeded Salamuri seems to be originated a bit later than the unreeded one and it was the widest spread folk instrument all over Georgia. That is made evident not only by the legends but also by the monuments of classical literature. According to the people’s belief, the sorrows of human being were the reason of creating Salamuri. The legend says that when the first reed grew up on the orphan’s grave, the wind blew and the reed moaned in a sad voice. Salamuri was an inseparatable close friend of a farmer that cheered him up in times of sorrow and sweetened his merriments. According to people’s belief, nothing can destroy a reed pipe; even fire cannot damage it. The parents’ faces are seen through its ashes and even the broken parts emit sweet tunes. According to some of the legends, people were presented with this instrument by God. That is why it is considered to be a divine musical instrument.

Georgian people, when creating each musical instrument tried resemble the nature’s sounds with them. For instance, Salamuri’s tunes sounds like birds’ song. According to the legends, Salamuri’s tunes cheered people up, tamed animals, makes birds sing, its sad tunes relieved human sorrows. According to one tale, Salamuri’s sad tunes could even make the grass cry.

Professional Salamuri players say that there is a difference between techniques of performance on these instruments: the reeded Salamuri is more difficult to play than the unreeded one. However, one can play any melody he/she wants on reeded Salamuri. The technical abilities of unreeded Salamuri are limited.

When designing Salamuri, masters take into account with which instrument it is going to be played. According to this, they define the octave range of the instrument. The masters can design two kinds of Salamuri: I-part and II-part (deep-voiced Salamuri is also produced).

Today this instrument has a stable place in Georgian folk ensembles. It has been traveling all over the world together with the spirited Georgian dances and has been spreading the sweet tunes of Iberian Salamuri.

When covering Salamuri by our fingers while slightly blowing we get C of the first octave. We pronounce the sound “T”. When lifting one low finger completely we get the sound D and if we lift the finger partly from C we get C. If we lift a finger from D completely we get E and lifting finger partly from E we get E. Then comes F when completely lifting the finger from E and when lifting a finger partly from F we get F. The G comes, partly lifting G, then A, B, completely lifting, H- lifting partly. When covering by all the fingers and blowing strongly we get C of the second octave. The sounds of the second octave we can get by lifting the fingers and blowing stronger.

Georgian Urban Musical Folklore

October 9th, 2014

Georgian urban musical art is an important part of national musical folklore. This artistically independent layer was born as a result of the synthesis of different cultural traditions and survived up to the 20 th century in two major branches – Eastern (one-voiced) and Western (multi-voiced) urban folklore.

The interference of Eastern tunes in Georgia started in the 16 th –17 th centuries. The Eastern branch of urban folklore is also called Ashugh art. It was born in Samstkhe-Javakheti and Kartli-Kakheti as a result of the Muslim settlement. The popularity of Ashugh art is associated with the names of Sayatnova and Besiki – poets and musicians at the court of King Erekle II in the 18 th century. Sayatnova, an Armenian by origin, spent almost all his life in Georgia. He wrote poems in three languages – Georgian, Armenian and Persian and sang them in Persian melodies. Besiki, a Georgian poet, could perfectly play the saz and tar. He introduced the forms typical of oriental poetry – baiati and mukhambazi, into Georgian poetry. These forms gained a foothold in the 19 th century Tbilisi and laid foundation to the Tbilisi musical folklore. Eastern art was of syncretic character, because the elements of music, poetry and theatre were organically merged in it. Ashughs were the people gifted with the talent of poetry and music, and the ability of improvisation. They occupied a distinguished place in the cultural life of Tbilisi. The ashughs Satara, Saginashvili, Shamchi-Melko, Evangula, Chipr-Dalakishvili, Hazira, Yetim Gurji and others were especially popular.

Lyrical-intimate, eulogic, patriotic and social themes are leading in their creative works. Among the most famous samples of Tbilisi folklore are Akhal Aghnago Sulo, Mukhambazi, Akh Mtvarev, Avar-Avar, Patara Bichi, Kekeljan, Shenda Sheqramdis, etc.

Georgian urban one-voiced songs bear a clearly expressed Eastern colouring. They are characterized by melismatic ornamentation of basic pitches, harmonic major and minor descending tetra-chord with augmented seconds, alternation of meter, etc.

Eastern instruments represent organic part of the urban folklore’s eastern branch. Generally, singing was accompanied by non-Georgian instruments duduki, zurna,saz and others. The ensemble of eastern instruments was called dasta.

This flow of urban folklore was broadly used by the classics of Georgian music, especially in romances and operatic lyrical arias.

Urban folklore of the western manner is a phenomenon of later times; it became popular in the second half of the 19 th century and its origin is associated with the activity of the Italian opera group in Tbilisi from 1851. The synthesis of Neapolitan songs, Italian operatic arias, Russian romances, students’ songs and Georgian traditional multi-voiced singing created a new type of polyphony, based on the major-minor functionality. These songs are performed by two or three voices with the accompaniment of a guitar. National colouring together with the intonational structure is also enriched by specific glossolalia. Many urban multi-voiced songs of this branch are closely connected with Georgian poetry. They were especially widespread in the towns of Kutaisi and Zestaponi in Imereti. The most popular songs are Tsitsinatela, Aghmart-Aghmart, Santelivit Chavkrebi, Morbis Aragvi, Mesmis-Mesmis and others. Multi-voiced urban song, in its turn, had great impact on the lyrical nature of Georgian professional music in the 1940s.